Home > Articles > Vincit qui patitur: THE TRIALS OF A GREAT-HEARTED BISHOP


diram qui contudit hydram Ev’n he who crush’d the far-famed Hydra’s rage
notaque fatali portenta labore And dared so long a fateful war to wage
subegit, With monsters dire, those monsters all o’erthrown,
comperit invidiam supremo Found Envy could be quell’d by Death alone.
fine domari. — Horace Ep. 2.1.10-12 Tr. Francis Howes (London 1845)
George Washington Doane, the Bishop of New Jersey 1832-1859, in an early photograph. Brady-Handy Collection, Library of Congress.

George Washington Doane, Bishop of New Jersey 1832-1859, in an early photograph. Brady-Handy Collection, Library of Congress.

A tale is told that in Burlington, one October morning, a snake met a swift and grisly end beneath the heel of George Washington Doane.

On the streets of a small riverfront city of the mid-1800s, seeing a snake would have been fairly commonplace, but the man in this encounter was far from ordinary. Soon to complete his twentieth year as the bishop of New Jersey, he had long held a place of eminence not only in his church but in the civic and cultural life of the state and nation. Thanks to a rare combination of exceptional intellect, talent and zeal, together with a genial nature and seemingly boundless energy, he was at once venerated and controversial. Any preacher might have thought, as he “kicked the now harmless carcass off the sidewalk, and quietly went on his way,” of the biblical curse on the serpent, doomed to eternal enmity with the human race. But on this day Doane faced a more personal foe: he was fighting for his very survival as a bishop, and this had emerged as a day of destiny.[1]

From the outset George Washington Doane seemed marked for great things: by his birthplace of Trenton where his father, a master builder, gave New Jersey its first state capitol[2]; by his name, an homage to the hero of Trenton and the young republic; and by his birth year, the last of the 1700s, which saw the passing of that hero. It was lost on few Americans that their steadfast leader, the nation’s Moses, did not live to go with them into the new century. New Jersey would pay Washington the tribute of a statehouse ceremony a month after his death. The convergence can be imagined, though unproven, of an infant held by his father in the temple of liberty his father had built, where speaker and audience bade farewell to the statesman who had secured that freedom, and for whom the boy was named.[3]

Doane the father moved his family as his work demanded, first to New York City where his son came under the wing of the scholarly Dr. Edmund D. Barry, then to upstate New York where the Doanes shared quarters for a time with a bookseller and printer. In these surroundings young George acquired much of his early education. He would later recall working out the sense of the phrase alma mater – three years before he began to study Latin – as a moment of awakening to the possibilities of learning.[4]

Union College in Schenectady became Doane’s alma mater, where he developed the habit of study late into the night, with little need for sleep. Upon graduation he was drawn into the circle of the charismatic bishop of New York, John Henry Hobart. Finances straitened by the sudden death of Doane’s father merged with a blossoming theological interest, leading him to take holy orders. He entered the priesthood at the age of twenty-four, one of the rising stars of the Protestant Episcopal church.[5]

His ascendancy was not without grief and strife. He obtained the powerful positions of assistant, then rector, of Boston’s historic Trinity Church, and in 1829 married a well-to-do Boston widow, Eliza Greene Perkins. But Eliza, after the birth of their second son, fell into a severe depression that rendered their home a place of “deep domestic sorrow.”[6] Her physical health, too, would be forever fragile. Meanwhile, intrigues against Doane brought the church of Boston to near-schism. His sudden election in 1832 as bishop of New Jersey came to him as a surprise, and to many in the New England church as a blessed relief.

Riverside, the residence of Bishop Doane at Burlington, designed by John Notman. Illustration from A. J. Downing, A treatise on the theory and practice of landscape gardening, adapted to North America (1841)

Riverside, the residence of Bishop Doane at Burlington, designed by John Notman. Illustration from A. J. Downing, A treatise on the theory and practice of landscape gardening, adapted to North America (1841).

Spirited from Boston back to his native state, Doane left a wealthy, sophisticated society for one just a little above primitive. Compared with New England the church in New Jersey was so feeble and poor that his Boston friends warned he would be paid in “watermelons and sweet potatoes.”[7] Doane held the rectorship of St. Mary’s parish in Burlington along with the post of bishop, but would have lived a fairly scanty existence without his wife’s support.

Nonetheless this ambitious young prelate, builder’s son that he was, soon put his stamp on his new environment. He added wings to St. Mary’s church, the state’s oldest house of worship. He established a fashionable home on the banks of the Delaware, called Riverside; a pioneering project of architect John Notman, it is considered the first Italianate residence in the United States. The house became a hive of activity, conviviality and erudition (its library would grow to number more than 6,000 items). But closest to Doane’s heart was the adjacent St. Mary’s Hall, an academy “for female education on Church principles.” In an age little interested in the intellectual development of girls, St. Mary’s Hall was designed “to systematize the education of the gentler portion of our kind, and rescue it from the frivolous control of fashionable caprice.”[8] Bishop Doane was the Hall’s founder, principal and spiritual leader, directly involved in all details of its work.

The church grew more vibrant and visible during Doane’s tenure, quintupling its clergy and increasing the number of communicants sevenfold. Where humble wooden structures once stood, there now rose graceful sanctuaries of stone. The emerging architectural standard of an idealized English parish church had no more vigorous champion than the bishop of New Jersey. It was an aesthetic highlighted by Doane’s tour of England in 1841 and his account of what he saw and felt there: “Every where, new Churches are arising. Every where, old Churches are repaired, enlarged and beautified.”[9] Doane facilitated this movement on American soil, and could soon say that, even in his native state, “It is beginning to be felt, that the house of God need not be mean or homely.”[10]

The church’s increase was nourished by, and nourished, the legendary restlessness of its bishop. He kept a punishing regimen of preaching, pastoral care and visitations around the diocese – which then encompassed the whole of New Jersey – with all the privations of travel characteristic of that age. He slept only a few hours a night, and it was said that he could sleep anywhere, in any position.[11] As if administering a parish, a school and a diocese was not enough, the flow of letters, orations, hymns and verse from his pen was almost unstoppable.[12] He was a mainstay of the state’s historical society from its founding in 1845. He maintained, in his rapid and sometimes inscrutable hand, a voluminous personal correspondence with colleagues and companions, clergy and lay people around the country and abroad. The return on all this activity, besides a far-reaching and loyal network of friends, was seeing the health and wealth of the church resurgent, though frequently to the detriment of his own.

St. Mary’s Hall viewed from the Delaware River. Lithograph from a sketch by John Collins, published in Views of the City of Burlington, New Jersey (Burlington, 1847). Library of Congress.

In 1837, the year which saw the opening of St. Mary’s Hall, a national recession began that would persist well into the next decade. Although money was in short supply, the bishop’s educational venture endured and his vision of future growth was undimmed. In 1845 he launched two seminal projects in neo-Gothic religious building: the Chapel of the Holy Innocents, another of John Notman’s works adjacent to the Hall; and an entirely new St. Mary’s church designed by Richard Upjohn. The next year, Doane welcomed the first class of boys to Burlington College, a new preparatory academy parallel with, but strictly separate from, his school for girls. The College opened without any endowment – “every thing was to be done,” the bishop said, “and nothing to do it with”[13] – and to keep two schools operating in hard times demanded all his powers of persuasion and self-sacrifice. Consequently, between 1845 and 1849 Doane accumulated a massive amount of debt. High rates of interest and a lengthy, serious illness left him no reasonable chance of repaying these loans, and he was at last compelled to sign over all of his real and personal property, including what belonged to the Hall, the College and Riverside, to be auctioned off for the repayment of creditors.

But Bishop Doane’s troubles were just beginning. More alarming than his inability to pay his debts were the ways in which he contracted them. Evidence from many quarters indicated that to secure loans he had repeatedly misrepresented the state of his finances, and then misapplied the funds so obtained.

There had always been a disgruntled few who took exception to Doane’s “Romish” predilections, his princely bearing, his florid rhetoric, his larger-than-life persona, or who simply envied his success. Now these reservoirs of disaffection and resentment found an outlet.

It would be no simple matter to challenge the bishop’s power. A proposed investigation found little support within the New Jersey church establishment: it garnered not a single vote at the 1849 convention, not even from its sponsor William Halsted, a celebrated Trenton attorney and lay delegate.[14] Halsted and others likewise failed at a civil action: a grand jury in 1850 heard testimony on the bishop’s dealings, but chose not to indict him.[15]

Burlington College seal

The seal of Burlington College, from the Doane memorial window in the Chapel of the Holy Innocents, Burlington. The school’s motto was TALIUM ENIM EST REGNUM DEI (Mark 10:14).

The only recourse was to persuade three bishops outside New Jersey to make a formal statement of charges, called a presentment. This would lead in turn to a trial by Doane’s peers. Though professing their reluctance to do so, the bishops of Virginia, Maine and Ohio sympathized with the effort to bring Doane to judgment, and on February 2, 1852, a letter from the three was left at the door to Riverside, accompanied by a lengthy catalogue of alleged offences, thirty-seven in all. In their letter the bishops pressed Doane to call a special convention and begin an inquiry into the scandal. Nothing less would “either satisfy those whom you may deem unfriendly to you, or relieve the minds of many anxious and distressed friends.” And nothing less could relieve the letter’s authors of the “most distressing duty” of presenting a fellow bishop for trial.[16]

Doane lost no time in answering the three. In a defiant Protest, appeal and reply, he made their letter public and called their action “uncanonical, unchristian and inhuman.” He dissected and dismissed each of the charges, branding them “false, calumnious and malignant.” Doane’s extraordinary pamphlet had a print run in the thousands, and was the first strike in a publishing war that would feed the nation’s presses for the next two years.[17] At the heart of its argument was the claim that a fundamental Episcopal principle – the independence of each diocese and bishop from every other – was under attack. By dictating a course of action the three bishops had trespassed on the rights of New Jersey: the “freedom, peace and order of the Church are threatened now,” Doane wrote, “through a triumvirate of tyrants.”[18]

As the state convention overwhelmingly stood behind its leader and against such external “aggression,” the bishops were honor bound to go ahead with their presentment. But others in the House of Bishops aligned themselves squarely with Doane. Church law required that the accused be tried in his home diocese; thus New Jersey was poised to assume a role it had played in the days of the Revolution, a battleground for forces greater than itself.

Doane entered the fray confident in his cause: “The world is wide,” he declared, “and I am fearless.”[19] His position was strengthened considerably by the trial’s postponement from the summer to the fall of 1852. When seventeen bishops from the northern, southern and western states finally assembled that October in a hall in Camden, he was prepared to contest not just the charges, but the very validity of the proceedings.

After one session, out of consideration for Doane and his witnesses, the tribunal granted a change of venue to Burlington. A new presentment had been introduced by the same three bishops, prepared with the advice of William Halsted. Along with most of the old allegations it made some new charges: sumptuous living, intemperance, even public drunkenness. But the bishop of New Jersey made masterful use of his arguments and resources, famously vowing to do all he could “to make the trial of a Bishop hard.”[20] Acting as his own lawyer in court, he prevented his accusers from exercising their right to counsel, forcing them “to do all their own work.”[21] The central issue, he argued, was the inviolable right of a diocese to govern its own affairs; the case was as much about any of the bishops as about him. During the summer hiatus the New Jersey convention had held an inquiry and found no cause for the original presentment; any new charges should be theirs to investigate.

In diligence, eloquence and tactical skill the presenters were no match for Doane, but the court was about evenly divided on whether to dismiss the charges or proceed to trial. By the end of the seventh day all but one member had given his opinion. The following morning, when Bishop Doane arrived at court having just dispatched an unlucky snake, the decision came down to the bishop of Mississippi, who began by describing himself as one “disposed to hold the Clergy to a strict account.” The accusations were grave, he said, or he would not have travelled more than two thousand miles to be present. But it was his belief that the presentment should be withdrawn.[22] Confounded, Doane’s accusers rushed to introduce their earlier presentment; their attempt was soundly rejected, and the court broke up “rather tumultuously.”[23] Narrowly, George Washington Doane had escaped a trial.

Odd Fellows Hall, Camden

Odd Fellows Hall in Camden. The final dismissal of charges against Bishop Doane occurred here on September 15, 1853. Photo courtesy of the Courier-Post.

The slim margin of his victory, procedural missteps on the part of the presenters, the refusal of the opposing parties to agree on almost anything – all of this made it clear that nothing was settled. The presenting bishops declared that the charges had never been considered on their merits, that Doane had not even entered a plea, and that there was ample proof of his guilt. Nor was Doane’s own church satisfied: several days later its convention, with the bishop in the chair, erupted into shouting and nearly came to blows over the credibility of its findings.[24] Outsiders could marvel at New Jersey’s united front,[25] but its head had become a divisive figure in a church that was deeply polarized.

The case would not be resolved for another year – and then only to the satisfaction of those wishing peace above all else. A third presentment meant another summons to Camden in September 1853. This time the House of Bishops rejected Doane’s request for a change of venue. The convention continued to insist that it had cleared him of the charges; his accusers were adamant that those findings had no weight; and Doane remained a deft defender of his jurisdiction from outside attack. There seemed no way out of the impasse until finally, on the twelfth day, the court agreed to dismiss the charges partly on the strength of a statement by Doane repenting of “such error as his conscience accused him of.”[26] The defendant admitted mistakes and regretted his overconfidence and bad luck, but he confessed to no crime. Nonetheless, by this arrangement, he came as near to an admission of guilt, and the court as near to a conviction, as either side dared. The presenters had no other choice than to accept defeat.[27]

The struggle ended with no winners. Doane had foiled his enemies for a second and last time, but the long and bitter controversy had strained many friendships and taken its toll on his health and family. Two years to the day from the dismissal of the last presentment, he had to depose his older son, a newly ordained Episcopal deacon, for defecting to Roman Catholicism. It was a blow that Doane felt would hasten his death: “the heart-wound of this loss must go with me, into the grave; and bring me sooner, there.”[28]

Despite the pain of this and other trials Bishop Doane carried on with dignity. His speech on Washington’s birthday 1859 was one of his best received, although it betrayed little sense of kinship with his exalted namesake, who had enemies, yes – “men, whose blame is praise: whose censure is applause; whose condemnation is immortal glory.”[29] However far he rose above his own adversities, Doane could not help but feel diminished by them.

It was to be his last public address. Amidst the toils of parish visitations, he caught a severe chill that developed into a raging fever, and he died in his bed at Riverside on the Wednesday of Easter week, a month shy of age sixty.

The tomb of Bishop Doane

The tomb of Bishop Doane. St. Mary’s churchyard, Burlington.

Burlington never witnessed such a display of grief or such a throng of mourners as turned out for the bishop’s funeral. Swaths of black crepe decorated nearly every house overlooking the procession from Riverside to St. Mary’s church. The governor was there, state legislators, brother bishops and other clergy, youth from Burlington College and St. Mary’s Hall, the household of Riverside, townspeople, the faithful and the curious from all over the state and beyond. Before the grave stood his two sons, at the head of a crowd estimated at three thousand. Their mother Eliza was away in Italy for her health; within six months she too was dead, and was laid to rest in Florence.

Meeting to elect a successor, the convention heard a sermon in the late bishop’s memory entitled “The great-hearted shepherd.” [30] The final words of his epitaph are precisely these, though cast in the languages of Vergil and Horace, Homer and Hesiod. Carved of Belleville brownstone, cruciform and with a coped roof, Doane’s monument suggests St. Mary’s church, which stands next to it, and the many other churches built during his twenty-seven years as bishop. The inscription at the foot of its base reads:

✣ In ‧ Memoriam ‧

Episcopi ‧ Neo-Cæsar ‧ Huius ‧

Eccl ‧ S ‧ Mariæ ‧ Conditoris ‧ et ‧

Rectoris ‧ Collegii ‧ Burlingtonien-

sis ‧ ac ‧ Aulæ ‧ S ‧ Mariæ ‧ Fundatoris ‧


To honor its late rector, the parish of St. Mary’s commissioned an elaborate stained glass window for the east end of the church. It depicted Christ as the Good Shepherd, and its inscription too was in Latin.[32] A memorial window was created for the Chapel of the Holy Innocents bearing stylized seals of St. Mary’s Hall and Burlington College.[33] A few churches elsewhere in the state offered similar tributes to the bishop, but many that originated during his episcopate or flourished under his care were silent.[34]

To memorialize the man was not to dismiss his faults. The eulogist of “The great-hearted shepherd” described him as “strongly, manifoldly, perilously human.”[35] Another compared Bishop Doane’s flaws to spots on the face of the sun: any just appreciation must treat him “as a whole, complete in all his parts, in the fulness of his stature.”[36]

In stature and skill, resolve and resilience, George Washington Doane had few equals if any. The leader of Burlington’s Presbyterians summarized ably and affectionately the life and works of “a man of firm purpose; resolute to be, to do, and to suffer.”[37] Although tried and humbled, Bishop Doane also triumphed through his sufferings and, arguably, beyond. A figure so many-sided must be examined from myriad angles and through varied lenses. If called on to judge him, history may be forgiven for deferring to a higher court.

Copyright © 2015 Gregory J. Guderian

The "new" Saint Mary's Church, Burlington, built between 1846 and 1854 to the design and under the supervision of Richard Upjohn.

The “new” Saint Mary’s Church, Burlington, built between 1846 and 1854 to the design and under the supervision of Richard Upjohn.

^ 1]  The episode of the snake is recounted in [John Henry Hopkins, Jr.,] The life of the late Right Reverend John Henry Hopkins, first bishop of Vermont, and seventh presiding bishop. By one of his sons (New York 1873) 258.

^ 2] Jonathan Doan or Doane, parts of whose 1792 structure the current statehouse incorporated, is also credited with the Penitentiary House, New Jersey’s first state prison (1797-99), which still stands on Second Street and whose inscription is featured in an earlier article.

^ 3] The chief orator for the occasion was Samuel Stanhope Smith, president of the College of New Jersey at Princeton; his words were subsequently printed as An oration, upon the death of General George Washington, delivered in the State-House at Trenton, on the 14th of January, 1800 (Trenton 1800). Doane’s anecdote of a thrashing he once gave to an older boy who insulted the general’s name suggests that a reverence for Washington was instilled in him early. The life and writings of George Washington Doane, D. D., LL. D., for twenty-seven years bishop of New Jersey, containing his poetical works, sermons, and miscellaneous writings; with a memoir, by his son, William Croswell Doane (hereafter Life and writings). 4 volumes. (New York and London 1860-61) 1:14.

^ 4] G. W. Doane, Alma mater: the Baccalaureate address, at the seventh annual commencement of Burlington College, in St. Mary’s Church, Burlington. On the feast of St. Michael and All Angels, 1856 (Philadelphia 1856) 3, reprinted in Life and writings 4:(65-73) 65-66. For Doane’s years in Geneva and Schenectady see Life and writings 1:16-23.

^ 5] Life and writings 1:24-26, 67.

^ 6] G. W. Doane, Diary (1828-1833), Cleveland-Perkins family papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library, box 26, entry for 30 December 1832. Excerpts from this diary were published in Life and writings 1:186 but some passages, especially about Eliza’s illness, are found only in the original.

^ 7] Life and writings 1:190n.

^ 8] Catalogue and prospectus of St. Mary’s Hall, for M DCCC XLIV. Summer term (Burlington 1844) 3, quoted in Life and writings 1:49.

^ 9] G. W. Doane, The glorious things of the City of God: The first sermon (Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity, 26th September, 1841.) in St. Mary’s Church, Burlington, after a brief pilgrimage to the Church of England (Burlington 1842) 22; reprinted in Life and writings 4:(512-548) 527.

^ 10] G. W. Doane, The goodly heritage of Jerseymen: The first annual address before The New Jersey Historical Society; at their meeting, in Trenton, on Thursday, January 15, 1846 (Burlington 1846121; (Burlington 1848219; reprinted in Life and writings 4:(341-366) 355. For Doane’s key role in this transatlantic phenomenon, see Phoebe B. Stanton, The Gothic revival & American church architecture. An episode in taste 1840-1856 (Baltimore 1968) esp. 31-55, 73-83.

^ 11] Cortlandt Van Rensselaer, A funeral sermon on the occasion of the death of Bishop Doane, preached in the Presbyterian Church, Burlington, N. J., on May 1st, 1859 (Philadelphia 1859) 8; (New York 1859) 16; reprinted in id. Miscellaneous sermons, essays and addresses (Philadelphia 1861) (477-507489-490.

^ 12] The poetic output of his youth had included verse translations from Italian, Greek and the Latin of Catullus and Horace. His early compilation Songs by the way, chiefly devotional; with translations and imitations (New York 1824) was expanded and republished after his death in the first volume of Life and writings: William Croswell Doane, ed. “Songs by the way.” The poetical writings of the Right Rev. George Washington Doane, D.D., LL.D. (New York and London 1860). The collection was later separately reprinted (Albany 18753).

^ 13] The work hereafter cited as Doane’s Protest, appeal and reply had as its full title The protest and appeal of George Washington Doane, Bishop of New Jersey; as aggrieved, by the Right Reverend William Meade, D. D.; the Right Reverend George Burgess, D. D.; and the Right Reverend Charles Pettit McIlvaine, D. D.: and his reply to the false, calumnious, and malignant representations of William Halsted, Caleb Perkins, Peter V. Coppuck, and Bennington Gill; on which they ground their uncanonical, unchristian and inhuman procedure, in regard to him (Philadelphia 1852) 20.

^ 14] According to Charles King, a newspaper editor and future president of New York’s Columbia College, “no solitary Aye broke this awful silence!” Morning courier and New-York enquirer 1849.06.02 2:1. King’s report was warmly received and reprinted by Doane, A brief narrative (n.p., [1849]) 8-14; Protest, appeal and reply 49-52Supporters of the resolution maintained that it was lost not because of a universal belief in Doane’s innocence but from a reluctance to inquire into unsubstantiated rumors, as well as the fact that the bishop himself presided over the vote. Samuel Starr, A word of self-defence, read by the Rector, at a full meeting of the wardens and vestrymen of St. Michael’s Church, Trenton, New Jersey, and published with their unanimous approval, September 1850 (n.p., [1850]) 5.

For the remarkable career of Halsted see Jacob Weart, “Reminiscences of some former noted members of the New Jersey bar. Col. William Halsted,” The New Jersey Law Journal 20 (1897) 133-140.

^ 15] Starr, A word of self-defence 5, 12-13; An historical review of the proceedings in the case of Bishop Doane (New York 1853) 7.

^ 16] Protest, appeal and reply 3-4. The complaint was divided into 37 “specifications” falling under 19 “charges.” The bishop’s subsequent presentments consisted of a single charge of “crime and immorality” enumerating 27 (later 31) specifications.

^ 17] The full title is given above, note 13. Doane’s pamphlet included the first printing of the bishops’ letter on pp. 3-4 and the complaint from Halsted and the other laymen to the bishops on pp. 5-6; Doane inserted and addressed the charges seriatim in his “Reply.” He also reprinted Charles King’s narrative of Halsted’s motion and its rejection by the 1849 convention on pp. 49-52.

^ 18] Protest, appeal and reply 16.

^ 19] G. W. Doane, autograph “Memoranda” dated Gloucester City, 16 April 1852, Autographs and Manuscripts of the Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church (MA 367) item 69 bound, Pierpont Morgan Library Department of Literary and Historical Manuscripts. On the second leaf of this private document, entitled “Suggestions,” Doane reflects: “I must be pardoned, if I suggest, that we are very much in the position of 1776: and I am not without sympathy with the sentiment, ‘Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God.’” Excerpts are printed in Life and writings 1:503n.

^ 20] The argument of the Bishop of New Jersey : in reply to the paper, read before the court of Bishops, in session, at Burlington, on Monday, 11 October, 1852, by the Bishops of Virginia, Ohio and Maine; in answer to the representation from the Diocese of New Jersey, read, before the court, by the Rev. Samuel L. Southard (Newark 1852) 13, quoted in An historical review of the proceedings in the case of Bishop Doane 23.

^ 21] The life of the late Right Reverend John Henry Hopkins 257.

^ 22] The record of the proceedings of the Court of Bishops, assembled for the trial of the Rt. Rev. George Washington Doane, D. D., LL. D., Bishop of New Jersey, upon a presentment made by the Rt. Rev. William Meade, D. D., Bishop of Virginia, the Rt. Rev. Charles Pettit McIlvaine, D. D., Bishop of Ohio, and the Rt. Rev. George Burgess, D. D., Bishop of Maine (New York 1852) 133.

^ 23] William Rollinson Whittingham, Bishop of Maryland, Diaries (1851-52), Maryland Diocesan Archives, entry at 2:108.

^ 24] A report of the sayings and doings in the special convention of the diocese of New Jersey, held in Trinity Church, Newark, on Wednesday, October 27th, 1852 (Newark 1852), esp. 2745.

^ 25] The head of New Hampshire’s Episcopalians noted, “It is wonderful how united the Churchmen of New-Jersey are in their Bishop.” A memorial of the Right Reverend Carlton Chase, D. D. First bishop of New-Hampshire, 1844 to 1870, with a biographical sketch (n.p. [1870]) 68.

^ 26] The record of the proceedings of the Court of Bishops, assembled at Camden, New Jersey, Sept. 1st, 1853, for the trial of the Rt. Rev. George Washington Doane, D. D., LL. D., Bishop of New Jersey, upon a presentment made by the Rt. Rev. William Meade, D. D., Bishop of Virginia, the Rt. Rev. Charles Pettit McIlvaine, D. D., Bishop of Ohio, and the Rt. Rev. George Burgess, D. D., Bishop of Maine (New York 1853) 40.

^ 27] In his annual address to the next year’s convention Doane hinted at his dissatisfaction with the outcome of the affair: “I content myself with the single remark, that the form, which its conclusion took, was not of my seeking; and was recommended to me, as, in the highest degree, desirable, for the peace and unity of the Church.” The Episcopal Address, to the seventy-first annual convention, in Grace Church, Newark, Wednesday, May 31, 1854 (Burlington 1854) 5; quoted in Life and writings 1:503. In a scathing satire published under a pseudonym, layman Henry Winter Davis blasted the bishops for sparing Doane in exchange for a “confession of his innocence.” An epistle congratulatory to the Right Reverend the Bishops of the Episcopal Court at Camden. From Ulric von Hütten (n.p. [1853]) 44.

^ 28] For the stories of George Hobart Doane’s conversion and eventual reconciliation with his father, see Brian Regan, Gothic pride. The story of building a great cathedral in Newark (New Brunswick and London 2012) 30-33; cf. Life and writings 1:507-9.

^ 29] G. W. Doane, One world; one Washington: the oration in the city hall, Burlington, on Washington’s birth-day, 1859; by request of the Lady Managers of the Mount Vernon Association, and many citizens of Burlington (Burlington 1859) 26, reprinted in Life and writings 4:(367-392387.

^ 30] M. Mahan, The great-hearted shepherd. The sermon in memory of the Right Reverend George Washington Doane, D. D., LL. D., late bishop of the Diocese of New-Jersey; preached by request of the Standing Committee, during the session of the convention of the diocese, in St. Mary’s Church, Burlington, Wednesday evening, May 25, A. D. 1859 (New York 1859).

^ 31]  The epithet μεγαλήτωρ is found throughout Homer, once in Hesiod’s Works and days 656, and is applied in the fragmentary pseudo-Hesiod’s Catalogue of women, fr. 90, to Sarpedon of Lycia, the “great-hearted shepherd of his people.” Another part of Doane’s epitaph, including the words “In pace,” runs in a fascia around the tomb, just below the roof. An unabbreviated version of the full inscription is printed in Life and writings 1:578 and in George Morgan Hills, History of the church in Burlington, New Jersey; comprising the facts and incidents of nearly two hundred years, from original, contemporaneous sources (Trenton 18761) 585; Trenton 18852585.

^ 32] Both the Good Shepherd window (a work by Essex County glass artist Owen Doremus) and its 1924 replacement (showing Mary and the Christ child) included Latin inscriptions in honor of Doane. The earlier one was recorded by Hills, History of the church in Burlington (Trenton 18761) 586; (Trenton 18852586. The latter was destroyed together with much of the church’s interior in a devastating fire in 1976, but its inscription has been reproduced in the current window: IN MEMORIAM GEORGIO W. DOANE, D.D., LL.D. EPISC. NOV. CAES., ECCL. HUISCE [sic] PER XXVI ANN. RECTORI, AMANTISSIMO | AC FIDELISSIMO PASTORI, QUI ANN. SACR. MDCCCLIX. V. KAL. MAI. OBIIT ET POST HOC TEMPLUM QUOD AEDIFICAVIT, SEPULTUS EST.

^ 33] The seal of Burlington College in the chapel window (inscribed COLLEGIUM BURLINGTONIENSE | FUNDATUM A.D. MDCCCXLVI) is illustrated above. That of St. Mary’s Hall (AULA SANCTÆ MARIÆ BURLINGTONIENSE [sic]| FUNDATA A.D. MDCCCXXXVII) has at the bottom ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI (Luke 1:38). In the antechapel hangs a full-length portrait of Bishop Doane presented to Burlington College in 1853; Hills, History of the church in Burlington (Trenton 18761) 659n; (Trenton 18852659n reproduced a lengthy Latin inscription “on the foot of its massive gilt frame,” but this has not been found.

^ 34] Memorial windows were installed in St. Thomas’s church in Glassboro and in the now vanished Trinity church in Trenton. The high altar of St. Peter’s in Morristown has the dedication ☩ A ‧ M ‧ D ‧ G ☩ | IN PIAM MEMORIAM PATRIS REVERENDI | GEO ‧ W ‧ DOANE ‧| EPISC ‧ SECUNDI ‧ DIOC ‧ NEO ‧ CÆS ‧ | MDCCCXXXII – LIX ‧ | CUM OMNI MILITIA CŒLESTIS EXERCITUS ‧  The concluding line is copied from a Eucharistic preface.

^ 35] Mahan, The great-hearted shepherd 25.

^ 36] Alfred Stubbs, A record of Christ Church, New-Brunswick, Diocese of New-Jersey (New Brunswick 18652) 65.

^ 37] C. Van Rensselaer, A funeral sermon (Philadelphia 1859) 7; (New York 1859) 15; reprinted in id., Miscellaneous sermons (477-507488.

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